The overall molecular and biochemical mechanisms how individual cells transduce signals to effectors are widely understood. Biochemical descriptions, however, do not directly lead to understanding how the stimuli are translated into distinct responses as signalling processes are immensely complex. The main goal of this project is to improve our understanding how cellular signaling processes can derive a variety of distinct outputs from complex inputs. To achieve this we will use an integrative approach that links tailored experiments with mathematical analysis. We will use interferon signaling as a model system to challenge the conventional concept of distinct signaling pathways that link signals with specific cellular responses. Further, we will explore our findings to examine how the interferon pathway can be therapeutically exploited in the context of anticancer therapies.